Neuro-Ophthalmology Nuggets

This site presents essays on various aspects of clinical neuro-ophthalmology, with emphasis on visual disturbances and clinical examination techniques. Some basic knowledge of general ophthalmology is presumed.

© 2005-2024 by Lars Frisén, MD, PhD, Neuro-ophthalmology, Sahlgren's University Hospital, SE-413 45 Göteborg, Sweden   -  Huh?   Latest update: May 9, 2024.

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Optimized for 1024×768 pixel screens and Chrome and Edge. As of 2016, all interactive displays depend on HTML5 and JavaScript (previous Java applets have been scrapped), and all videos have been converted from the flv format to mp4. The old site address ( is no longer operational.